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Research efforts into production of hydrogen using microorganisms

Since several microorganisms can produce hydrogen, microbial fermentation appears to be, in principle, a suitable alternative for hydrogen production. However, biological hydrogen production methods are faced with multiple barriers including substrate cost, low production rates and low yields. Moreover, most of the hydrogen-producing microbes need an oxygen-free environment. Attempts to overcome these barriers do exist and involve, among others, the use of biomimetic metalloprotein catalysts, water dispersible microbial micro-reactors, mixed microbial cultures achieving H2 production beyond the Thauer limit, combined approaches of dark and photofermentation, AI and in-silico approaches, use of nanoparticles and many more.